Engagement in Hybrid Project Teams – A Comparative Case Study of Project Managers’ Experiences in Denmark and the US


Eva Lundahl, Melody Rawlings, Randee Sanders


This study is intended to create new practitioner-focused knowledge on hybrid work in project teams to be consumed and applied by project management professionals and others who manage or work in virtual/hybrid teams. The study focused on the low levels of engagement among employees worldwide, particularly in Denmark and the U.S. The purpose of the qualitative comparative case study was to explore how project managers in Denmark and the U.S. perceive the impact of hybrid work on team member engagement and to understand the strategies used to enhance and sustain team member engagement in hybrid project teams. This research was framed according to Matthews et al.’s model of employee engagement in project-based organizations. Data were collected by interviewing 15 Danish project managers and nine U.S. project managers who participated in three focus groups. Thematic analysis and NVivo were used to code and analyze the data. The findings revealed that while Danish project managers were less enthusiastic about hybrid work than their American counterparts, their strategies for enhancing hybrid team member engagement were similar. This comparative case study produced a series of insights into project managers’ experiences with hybrid work and effective practices and strategies that help foster engagement in hybrid teams. More research is needed on why engagement levels are very low in different cultural contexts to clarify contributing factors and propose solutions.

Suggested Citation (APA 7th)

Lundahl, E., Rawlings, M., Sanders, R. (2023). Engagement in Hybrid Project Teams - A Comparative Case Study of Project Managers' Experiences in Denmark and the US. International Journal of Applied Research in Business and Management, 4(3), 21-62. https://doi.org/10.51137/ijarbm.2023.4.3.2

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